Salvia divinorum, Kratom, San Pedro Cactus and more
If you will be growing your own Salvia, you should read this. If you will not be growing your own, you may wish to skip this section.
Salvia divinorum is a semi-tropical perennial. That means that it can grow year after year, but only if it is not exposed to freezing temperatures. It is a green plant with large leaves and a distinctive thick, hollow, square green stem. It can grow several meters (yards) high if conditions are favorable. When it grows high enough, the branches will bend, or break, and may root if they come in contact with moist earth. Although Salvia divinorum can flower under natural lighting conditions, it almost never sets seed that will sprout. So the plant is almost always propagated by cuttings. The leaves are oval, weakly notched (serrated) and can be quite large (up to 9 inches in length). They are usually emerald green, but under some conditions, may be yellow-green or even yellow. They are covered with a fine coating of extremely short hairs (trichomes), giving the leaves a satin like velvety appearance in certain lights. The plants grow best in partial shade, in well-watered, but well-drained, soil. The roots must not be kept constantly soaked, or root-rot will set in and kill the plant.
Salvia divinorum can be grown indoors in any climate. It makes a beautiful house plant.
You can grow Salvia divinorum outdoors all year round if you live in a humid semi-tropical climate, with well-watered, but well-drained soil, with a high humus content. If you live in a colder or drier climate, you can still grow Salvia outdoors, weather permitting. But you may have to do it with some care, making sure it is protected from frost, watered frequently, and misted when humidity is low. Salvia will not live through freezing or drought. It can be grown outdoors in pots which can be brought indoors when it is cold (below 40 degrees Fahrenheit). That way it can be grown outdoors in summer and indoors in winter.
Salvia will tell you when it is getting too dry: its leaves will droop. Be sure to water it at the first sign of mild drooping–do not let the plant become limp. The soil should drain well but should be kept moist. If planting Salvia in pots, make sure the pot is large enough to allow the plant to grow well. Although your available space will limit possible pot size, use the biggest pot that is practical. It must have drainage holes. Placing gravel (or broken up pieces of crockery) in the bottom of the pot will help promote drainage and thus discourage root-rot. Most commercial potting soil will work well. Adding Vermiculite® or Perlite® to the potting soil is helpful but not essential.
Salvia will need fertilizer. Any good general-purpose fertilizer will work. Fish emulsion is a good organic fertilizer choice, but because it has a very unpleasant odor, it is suitable only for outdoor use. Satisfactory results can be achieved with chemical fertilizer products. Some of them are:
Scott’s® All-Purpose Plant Food (18-13-13) lightly sprinkled on the soil about once every six weeks. Miracle-Grow® (15-30-15) or MirAcid® (30-10-10) added to the water once a week (1/4 tsp. per gallon). Peter’s® Professional Soluble Plant Food (15-30-15) 1/4 tsp. to gallon of water once per week.
If growing indoors, take the plants outdoors when it is warm enough, and let rain fall on them. This will prevent mineral salts from building up in the soil and killing your plant
Salvia divinorum can do well in a variety of different lighting conditions. It does best with a few hours of partial sunlight a day. It can do well when grown indoors near a window. It can handle more sun if kept well watered and misted frequently. It can also handle moderately deep shade. When changing the lighting conditions or the humidity conditions your plants are exposed to, do so gradually. Given enough time, Salvia is very adaptable, but it may take weeks to get used to a new environment.
Many pests can attack Salvia. Whitefly is a big problem for greenhouse grown plants. Aphids, slugs, caterpillars, thrips, spider mites, and scale insects can also damage your plants. Root-rot and stem-rot can be problems. Fungal spots can appear on leaves. It is not known which plant viruses attack Salvia divinorum, but probably some do, as many attack other sages.
Aphids and scale insects can be removed with a cotton swab dipped in isopropyl (rubbing) alcohol.
Slug damage can be reduced by growing Salvia in pots on a raised deck or palette. Some may still get by and attack your plants. Keep an eye out for these slimy pests. One slug can eat an awful lot of Salvia! Beer can be used to attract and drown slugs. Set a saucer of beer in a slight depression in the ground; the surface of the saucer should be flush with the soil, so slugs can get in, get drunk, and drown.
Spider mites can be controlled by dissolving Castile soap in water and spraying the leaves, including the underside. Repeat at two-week intervals for three applications. Caution: there have been some reports of soap damaging leaves, so don’t use too much.
Your garden hose is your best friend in fighting most outdoor pests. Spray the leaves hard enough to blow the pests away, but not hard enough to damage the leaves. don’t forget to spray the underside of the leaves too. A fine mist nozzle works best for this.
Salvia divinorum is usually propagated by cuttings, not by seed. Cuttings may be rooted either in water or directly in soil. Here’s how:
ROOTING IN WATER:
Cut off a branch (4-8 inches long) bearing some leaves. Cut off the leaves that are attached to the lowest node on your cutting then immediately place it in about one and a half inches of water in a small water glass. Only one cutting is to be put in each glass, so if rot develops in one cutting it cannot spread to another.
It is best if the cutting is cut back to just below a node, since nodes are the places from which new roots are most likely to develop. While it is not necessary to make the cut here, doing so has the advantage that there will be no stem material dangling in the water below the node. This is important as the cut stem end is more likely to start to rot than is a node.
Make sure the cutting is made with clean shears, or a knife, so the cut stem does not get attacked by germs and fungi that could cause stem rot. Place it where it will get some filtered sunlight. Change the water daily. It may be a good idea to use cooled boiled water. If your water is chlorinated, boiling will drive off chlorine. Non-chlorinated water may be contaminated with plant disease germs, but boiling should kill these. Rooting in water is successful about 75% of the time (the rest of the time stem rot occurs and kills the cutting).
In two weeks roots will start to develop. When they are about 1/2-1 inch long, transplant to potting soil in a well-drained pot. Cover with a clear glass jar or clear plastic bag to serve as a humidity tent until the plant establishes its roots in the soil and appears vigorous (usually 1-2 weeks). Then gradually wean the plant from dependence on the humidity tent.
Some growers report that Salvia branches that break off spontaneously in summer are more likely to root successfully than those deliberately cut. Rooting in water outdoors may decrease the chance of stem rot occurring. apparently the UV light in unfiltered sunlight acts to kill germs or fungi in the water.
ROOTING IN SOIL:
Salvia can be rooted directly in soil. Materials needed:
* Potting soil.
* Two disposable plastic cups.
* Some Rootone® powder (this is a rooting hormone mixture that also contains a fungicide) it is available at most nurseries in the United States.
* A 1-gallon thin, transparent, polyethylene food storage bag.
* A rubber band.
Punch some small holes in one of the cups for drainage. Fill the cup 2/3 the way up with potting soil. Using a pencil or a finger make a hole in the soil about 2 inches deep. The soil is now ready for your cutting. You must now prepare the cutting. With clean shears, cut off a length of stem from a healthy plant. Leave a few leaves (small ones) on top. Harvest the larger leaves from the cut-off stem. Immediately after cutting the stem, place it in clean water. Cut it back to just below a node, as roots will develop from the node. Keep the cut surface wet. Place the cut surface, and the stem for about 1 inch above the cut, into the rooting powder. Shake off the excess. Rooting powder is somewhat toxic, so wash your hands after handling it. Place the powder coated cutting in the hole in the soil. Gently push the soil around the cutting, holding it in place while filling in the hole. Water the planted cutting until some water runs out the drainage holes. Place the cup with the plant in it into the second plastic cup (which is there to catch any runoff water). You may want to put a small piece of wood or plastic in the bottom of the outer cup to act as a spacer. This allows enough space for excess water to drain. Place a 1-gallon clear plastic bag over the rooted cutting, using a rubber band to hold it in place. The rubber band should be outside the bag and the bag outside both cups. The Rubber band holds the bag against the cups. As the plastic bag acts to conserve moisture, frequent watering is not required. After several weeks you can transplant the now rooted plant to a larger pot.
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